There exist documents written in the Old Iranian languages that have survived for nearly three millennia. The oldest texts are the Gāthās, 16 (or perhaps 17) short hymns written in an archaic form of an Old Iranian language called Avesta, named for the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism. The Gāthās have been handed down as a part of the Avesta along with several more recent texts. It is generally accepted that they contain the original teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra), who lived in the first half of the 1st millennium BC.
The only other Old Iranian language found in extant texts is the Old Persian used by the Achaemenian kings for inscriptions in cuneiform writing (6th–4th century BC). These inscriptions contain royal edicts and similar texts composed in a very formal style; they contributed little to the development of literature in Iran. However, in some collateral sources (including the Bible) there are indications that epic literature existed in the oral tradition of reciters at court.
The oldest preserved documents that use Middle Iranian languages date only from the 3rd century CE. They consist of inscriptions of the Sāsānian kings and religious texts of the Manichaeans, the followers of the Gnostic prophet Mani (3rd century CE). The most widely used written language was Middle Persian, better known as Pahlavi, which remained in use with the Zoroastrians into Islamic times. Only a few literary works have survived from this period, notably two episodes later incorporated into the Iranian epic as it was recorded by Ferdowsī in the 11th-century Shāh-nāmeh, Ayādgār-i Zarērān (“Memorial of Zarēr”), about the establishment of Zoroastrianism, and Kārnāmag-ī Ardāshīr, on the founder of the Sāsānian dynasty The myths, legends, and romanticized historical tales of this epic tradition were probably assembled into a continuous story in the early 7th century CE under the last Sāsānian king.
Official language (of Iran) is Persian. Next to Persian, there are many publications and broadcasting in other relatively popular languages of Iran such as Azeri, Kurdish and even in less popular ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages originated in Iran. The oldest records in Old Persian date to the Achaemenid Empire, and examples of Old Persian have been found in present-day Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. Persian is spoken today primarily in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Persian, until recent centuries, was culturally and historically one of the most prominent languages of the Middle East and regions beyond