The architecture in Iran dates back to 5000 BE to the present with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Syria to North India and the borders of China, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses, and garden pavilions to “some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen most important properties of traditional Architecture of Iran include: harmony with the nature and environment and take benefit from natural facilities of the location, harmony with the traditions of all provinces, Iranian architecture portray detail of life, beliefs, moral, ethic code and some other. The essence of traditional Architecture of Iran consists of math and theosophy. As, in ancient Iranian books architecture is named as “alhaseb” and “almohandess”.
The traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the six following classes or styles. Pre-Islamic: The Parsian style (Achaemenid, Median, Elamite eras), The Parthian style (Parthian, Sassanid eras).
Available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. Heavy clay, readily available at various places throughout the plateau, have encouraged the development of the most primitive of all building techniques, molded mud, compressed as solidly as possible, and allowed to dry.This technique used in Iran from ancient times has never been completely abandoned. The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a tenacious lime mortar, also facilitated the development of the brick.
Iranian architecture takes advantage of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as the circle and square, and plans which are often based on symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls.All traditional Persian houses have following sections: Hashti and Dalan-e-vorudi. Entering the doorway one steps into a small enclosed transitional space called Hashti. Here it is forced to redirect one’s steps away from the street and into the hallway, called Dalan e Vorudi. In mosques, the Hashti enables the architect to turn the steps of the believer to the correct orientation for prayer hence giving the opportunity to purify oneself before entering the mosque.
Persian houses in central sections of Iran were designed to make use of an ingenious system of wind tower that creates unusually cool temperatures in the lower levels of the building. Thick massive walls were allocated to keep the sun heat out in the summertime while retaining the internal heat in the winters. Famous Architectural Sites in Iran are; Meidan-e-Emam, Takht-e-Soleyman, Bisotun, Persepolis, Pasargadae, Bam, Isfahan, Soltaniyeh, TchoghaZabnil. .Furthermore, Iran is also renowned for having a number of world known villages that have unique architectural feature like Abyaneh in the central part of Iran and Masouleh in the northern part of the country.